Chinese rule in Vietnam
Chinese rule in Vietnam began before Christ. Chinese expansion lasted until the 10th century AD. The Viets actively resisted sinicization, as evidenced by the multiple uprisings that occurred throughout the course of thousands of years.
There are several key stages in the history of the Chinese dynasties domination of the territories of Vietnam.
The first Chinese conquest of Vietnam.
Historical data from Vietnamese researchers date the first Chinese conquest of Vietnam to 111 BC.
At that time, the Trieu dynasty ruled the territory of North Vietnam and South China. The main conflict in determining the dates of Chinese rule revolves around this surname. The Vietnamese consider the dynasty Vietnamese and they start the chronology of Chinese expansion after tha fall of this dynasty. The Chinese, on the other hand, claim kinship with the Trieu dynasty and push their rule back centuries, increasing the period of rule over the Vietnamese lands.
During the first Chinese expansion, the power in Vietnamese lands was transferred to the Mandarins. Chinese officials resettled colonists here in order to impose language, philosophy, hierarchy, and culture on the local population.
Chinese pressure on the Vietnamese people was so aggressive that the Trung sisters launched a large-scale uprising, which resulted in 65 Vietnamese districts maintaining their independence for three years. The reign of the Trung sisters is characterized by historians as the end of the first Chinese conquest.
The historical period of the second Chinese conquest of the viets begins in 43 AD. The beginning was the pacification of the rebellion of the Trung sisters by the Chinese General Ma Yuan, who with his associates took charge of the administration of the occupied territories.
This period is characterized by administrative and legislative reforms that were aimed at increasing the sinicization of the population. However, the Viets assimilated poorly and the real power remained in the hands of the local nobility.
Since 265, the Jin dynasty has come to power in the territories occupied by the Chinese. In China itself, at this time, the political situation was unstable, which led to a struggle for power in the occupied lands among officials.
Taxation of the Vietnamese people was so heavy that impoverishment led to constant hotbeds of uprisings. To mitigate the situation, the Chinese authorities had to lower separate taxes.
In 248, there was a major uprising led by a young 19-year-old woman, Trieu Thi Trinh, and as a result the chief Chinese governor was killed. The new Governor, Liu Yin, suppressed this revolt with 8,000 soldiers.
Ly Nam De (real name Ly Bon) restored the independence of Vietnam for half a century in 544. The saviour of the viets became the Emperor in opposition to the Chinese Emperor. It was during his reign that the territory of Hanoi received the status of the capital.
The third Chinese conquest of Vietnam.
The period of the third Chinese conquest dates from 602 to 905. Two Chinese dynasties alternated as rulers. In 618, the Sui dynasty was replaced by the Tang dynasty.
The Tang Empire was characterized by liberal tactics in relation to the captured Vietnamese territories. The authorities allowed the mountain communities to live independently under the leadership of their chiefs.
The revolts of the Viets did not abate, but were suppressed by the Chinese army with cruelty. Tens of thousands of people were killed, skinning and scalping were used to terrorize the population.
The largest revolt of the period occurred in 722. It was headed by Mai Hac De. however, this uprising did not bring independence from Chinese rule.
Freedom was achieved in 905, thanks to the Khuc family, which later became the ruling Khuc dynasty between 905 and 930. Since then, several Vietnamese dynasties have maintained their independence, fending off numerous foreign attacks. However, another period of Chinese expansion is known in history.
Another Chinese takeover of Vietnamese territories began after the defeat of the Vietnamese Ho dynasty in the war with the Chinese Ming dynasty in 1407. The Viets had been dreaming of independence for twenty years, untill the national hero Le Loi, who raised the Lam Song uprising. achieved success. The fight for independence lasted for almost ten years. Finally, in 1428, the reign was taken over by the Le dynasty and the Chinese finally refused to claim Vietnamese lands.